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人类走出非洲时间或更早为啥?

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发表于 2018-2-3 11:30:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
人类走出非洲时间或更早为啥?
张梦然 金识      
摘要:科技日报201822日发表记者张梦然的文章《人类“走出非洲”时间或更早》,为啥?张梦然先生是根据英国《自然》杂志1月31日发表的一项最新考古研究作的报道。该研究称,印度的古人类可能在约38.5万年前,就发展出了一种旧石器时代中期文化——这比此前认为的要早很多。由此将引发科学家对早期人类进化的重新思考,尤其是对“走出非洲”的传统理解。
人类“走出非洲”时间或更早,为啥?最新考古研究是,古人类走出非洲时,带上了一种标志性的工具----阿舍利手斧。该工具代表了直立人时期石器加工制作的最高技术,其一端较薄,另一端略厚,是史前时代第一种两面打制、加工精细的重型工具。这一切割工具虽然起源于古老非洲,却传播到几乎整个欧亚。由于迄今为止鲜有遗骸证据,所以人类在欧亚大陆的演化,通常都依照此类工具的变化而记录下来。印度夏尔马遗产教育中心的科学家团队,此次深入研究了来自印度南部名为“Attirampakkam”考古现场的7000多件石器。他们发现,这些石器共同记录了从阿舍利技术到旧石器时代中期技术(如典型的勒瓦娄哇剥片技术)的转变。这些发现表明,印度在约38.5万年前(误差为6.4万年),就已经产生了一种旧石器时代中期文化,这比此前认为的要早很多,但与旧石器时代中期文化在非洲和欧洲的形成时间大致相同。
理解欧洲和非洲以外地区进入旧石器时代中期的过程,对了解欧亚大陆古人类的生活和时代至关重要,尤其是研究解剖学意义上的现代人在非洲和非洲以外的出现及迁移。这些新发现表明,早在现代人类迁移出非洲并传播旧石器时代中期技术之前很久,印度就已出现了一种成熟的旧石器时代中期文化。其意味着迁移比之前认为的发生得更早,或者说,是当地的发展在印度的旧石器时代中期演化过程中扮演了重要角色。而我国部分分子生物学家,根据线粒体DNA和Y染色体的研究估算“非洲起源”,认为现代中国人是3589万年前从非洲迁移来的,现代东亚人群的非洲祖先大约在距今6—1.8万年前首先进入东南亚,再转入中国南方,最后越过长江进入北方地区。
这些专家认为中国古人类化石记录中有一个“空白期”,即距今10-5万年间尚未有古人类化石的确切记录。他们将这一现象归于末次冰期降临,使绝大多数生物种类难以存活,人类也因此而灭绝。冰期结束后,来自非洲的现代类型人群进入中国大陆,成了这块土地的新居民。这种“非洲起源论”的破绽,且不说是否真的存在这个“空白期”并无充分的科学依据,即使有这个“空白期”,也有些问题不好解释:这就是第四纪大冰川期,和始于距今7万年最冷的冰盛期是在距今2.5-1.6万年前的最后一次冰期,这是两个不同层次和温度差别很大的时期。非洲来的居民赶上最后一次冰期最严酷的寒冷环境,而如果原来的居民不能生存的话,非洲来的居民又岂能生存下来?如果在最后一次冰期的寒冷环境能生存,只是在第四纪大冰川期我国原来土著特点的居民,不能生存或难于生存,才约在200万年前离开从陆路到非洲,在约20万年前从非洲走出,这时期的往返迁徙,陆路和海路信息都能利用了。中国广西境内最新挖掘发现早期人类牙齿化石,其历史可追溯至7万-12.5万年前,这是早期现代人类迁徙至亚洲东部的可靠证据。王威教授说,这里所采用的测年方法,突破了以前同位素碳-14测定法最多只能测到3万年的局限,而把可检测的最远时间延长到数十万年,这种方法目前在第四纪研究中,已被公认为是一种最为成熟、可靠的新方法。
用基因研究的结果推测人类进化过程,无论如何是间接的,但来自化石的证据却是直接的。中国最早的古人类化石是170万年前的元谋人牙化石,在中国出土的各时期的古人类化石都有共同特征,如铲形门齿、长方形眼眶、脸较为扁平等,这表明至少170万年以来,中国人的进化过程是连续不断的。但由于东亚地区缺少5万年至10万年前的人类化石证据,使这种连续性出现了缺环。因此基因研究者认为,东亚地区的古人类在这个时期灭绝了,非洲现代人迁移亚洲并取代原住人群,便“顺理成章”。王威教授反驳说,用先进的方法测得柳江人和鄂尔多斯人,可能生活在距今7万年至13万年之间或更早后,弥补了这一缺环。在不久的将来,包括年代学在内的对中国南方古人类遗址的系统综合研究,有望揭示现代人类在东亚出现的年代和演化模式。
但用年差挑战者和“瓶颈”论者,共同想到的都是走陆路。如果走海路,打开地图看早在遥远的古代,虽然印度洋上的阿拉伯海和孟加拉湾是阻碍东西方来往的一片难以逾越的水域,它们上面的亚非大陆,索马里、阿拉伯、波斯和印度西部沙漠一直伸展到海边,但是早有古人就开始考虑从海上开辟一条更直接便利的道路。先说在3000多年以前,阿拉伯人顺着红海航行到了东非,还曾在波斯湾上航行过。因此,追溯到更遥远的古代,在第一个孵抱期世世代代在海边和海上生活的智人,其结果是使他们逐渐发现了印度洋的秘密。如发现每年的11月到第二年的3月,风总是从东北方的大陆上吹来,拂动着海水向西南流去。
这时的海上总是晴空万里,积云和雨水都很少。4月至11月则恰恰相反,出现西南风,驱赶着云涛和海流不断驰向东北方,海上的雷雨也比较多。而横渡阿拉伯海,航海到远方的印度去的办法,也许早就能遇到夏、秋两季西南风,乘独木舟之类的工具,就能飘航到印度;冬、春季两季遇到东北风,再返回阿拉伯半岛和非洲,而建立起连接东西方非洲和印度联系的海路。因为在第二个孵抱期,从《山海经》描述诞生的远古联合国盆塞海洋文明和山寨城邦文明时开始,我国便流传有许多远方的异国。例如东方海外的黑齿国,那里的人们牙齿是黑色的,喜欢吃蛇,也能玩蛇;南方海外的灌头国的人嘴部突出,以捕鱼为生;西方海外的奇肱国人会捕捉各种飞鸟;北方海外的聂耳国的人,耳朵较长,住在海岛上,是猎虎的能手。这些有趣的传说,看起来仿佛都是充满了幻想色彩的荒诞神话,但是仔细加以分析,便会觉得其中的一些国度与印度洋及阿拉伯半岛和非洲上的许多地方相似。传说往往以现实为基础,其中有一些很可能是古人在海上的见闻实录,或在航途中从其他民族古人那里听来的,也许有一部分是真实的情况。
总之,如果是20万年前生活在非洲的人类祖先,离开非洲,有一部分迁移来到阿拉伯海的也门和阿曼海岸边生活。例如,据欧洲、美国和南非科学家的报告,他们在南非印度洋沿岸的“布隆博斯洞穴”中就发现,距今约7.5万年前,人类就开始佩戴由贝壳制成的珠链饰物。这一贝壳珠链的发现,不仅提供了人类最早开始在大脑之外存储信息的确切证据,而且提供了早期人类早在南非印度洋沿岸生活的确切证据。他们如果在数万年间能发明一些用蒙着海豹和海象皮的小舟,或用芦苇捆扎成的小船,或者就是用独木舟,在缓缓漂浮木块的洋流水道上跟随着行进,又顺着风一桨又一桨地用力划行着,向着迷茫不清的海面驶去,虽到处都潜伏着不可捉摸的危险,但他们世世代代都生活在阿拉伯海岸,尽管许多古人曾经葬身在变幻无常和神秘莫测的海里,可是他们之中有人却汲取了更多的经验教训,勇敢地划着小皮舟或芦苇舟或独木舟,在东方的海面上越驶越远。
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-2-3 11:53:01 | 显示全部楼层
而且,也许经验告诉他们,有一股海水从印度那边滔滔不绝地涌入,在这股海流下面,隐藏着数不清的鱼。这对捕鱼为生的海上古人来说,也是一种强烈的诱惑!终于有一次,他们驶行得比以往任何一次都远,逐渐驶入了那股夹藏着大量游鱼的暖流悄悄向东偏移,丝毫也不觉驶近了迎面而来的另一条陌生的印度海岸。后来又把他们送到了纳马达河和恒河流域,从印度到缅甸,缅甸到我国云南。如果遇上这一股是从印度通向阿拉伯半岛的洋流,反之亦然。
这项研究曾有探险家注意到太平洋上的土阿莫图群岛的民族起源,再仔细察看埃及一座大金字塔内壁画上的芦苇船图形;与此相似的芦苇船,至今还在南美高原上的的的喀喀湖上应用。他们认为大洋可能不足以成为古人类往来的障碍,古人很可能就是乘坐芦苇小船漂航能到印度去的。于是他们在青尼罗河发源地的达拉湖边砍了12吨芦苇,按照从金字塔里抄绘来的图纸捆扎了一条小船,大约一个月就漂航了3300公里。而关于独木舟,大约在17世纪末,英格兰中部兰开郡的马丁湖被排干了,当人们在开挖湖底的时候,无意中掘出了一只独木舟,接着又是一只……,就这样一共挖出了8只。最初人们以为这几只独木舟不过是英国古代原始人类的遗物,但是经一位名叫李依的学者仔细研究和比较分析这些独木舟的式样和大小,发现竟和当时美洲印第安人使用的没有什么不同。如果鉴定没有错,这唯一的可能性只能是古代的美洲印第安人曾经到达过英国。难道古代的印第安人就是凭借这种原始的独木舟漂过辽阔的大西洋到英国来的?其实要回答这个问题并不难,从美洲中部炎热的墨西哥湾,也有一股宽达几个公里的墨西哥湾流,以每昼夜150公里的流速偏向北西,流到英伦三岛的西岸,然后再向北流到挪威的海面,最后消失在北极圈里。这股巨大的海上“河流”曾卷带着一些美洲的热带树木流到北欧沿岸,给古人以启发。独木舟漂洋过海虽然充满了危险,但是在顺利的情况下,却不是不可以成功的。
千百年来,不知有多少迷航的独木舟在漂洋越海的途中被大海所吞噬,真正到达印度海岸的只是其中很少的一部分。有趣的是,在与大海完全隔绝的巴蜀各地区考古,都发现有一种像船的棺材悬在悬崖上,而并非发现于中国东南的海边。很可能,5000多年前巴蜀还是内陆盆塞海,那些侥幸逃生的人类的非洲祖先,经阿拉伯海的洋流乘独木舟之类的工具到印度,从印度到缅甸,缅甸到云南,云南到广西,北至内蒙古,特别是进入中国后,就迁居到水草丰美、适宜于渔猎生活的巴蜀内陆盆塞海,并按照曾在阿拉伯海湾生活的方式制造了这些像船的悬棺的独木舟。在四川省盐亭县天垣乡盘垭村发掘出的“盘古王表”和盘古王退位后南迁的传说,以及在四川发掘出的三星堆、金沙等古遗址发现的远古文明,和巴比伦古苏美尔人是蜀人等,也为这种东西方往来的远古交流提供了证据。因此,20万年前生活在非洲的人类祖先迁徙到中国,如果走的是海路,就不需要10到15万年,用年差挑战“非洲起源”说难于成立。因为柳江人和鄂尔多斯人的时间测定在10到15万年区域,说明也可能是从海路来中国的。
由此不难想象人类和人类文明的起源有两个孵抱期:一是非洲到中东的地区,一是古巴蜀盆塞海及周边东南西北中的地区。人类的大迁徙曾在这两个方向有过多次的来回,但在非洲起源,有杂交分子人类学DNA交叉的过硬测量证据,而远古联合国起源于第二个孵抱期有这种证据吗?虽然在这第二个孵抱期是游团、部落、酋邦组织形态都有的集成体,类似今天的联合国的民族组成,难以找到一个统一的基因样本。但远古联合国的地域核心毕竟只是在古巴蜀盆塞海四周,比今日联合国组成小得多,即使在这四周都有争抢的本土文明起源说与演化论。现拿王传超博士的中国人三个超级祖先起源看,起底王传超分子人类学的真实观,其实正是《川西羌语支人群的遗传结构》一文,他给我们提供了远古联合国起源于第二个孵抱期的DNA基因考量,即使这工作做得很难。
王传超博士说,他们是按照知情同意的原则,在川西采集的407个健康无关个体的血样。而且他们的研究需要由复旦大学生命科学学院伦理审查委员会审核通过,并与受试者均签署了知情同意书。这407份样本分属四个群体:47份取自丹巴县尔龚语人群,43份样本取自道孚县八美镇尔龚语人群,124份样本取自新龙县康藏人群,193份样本取自雅江县河口镇的康藏人群。使用天根生化DP-318试剂盒进行全基因组DNA提取。远古联合国起源的一个统一基因样本与汉藏语系相关,这包含汉语、藏缅语族这两个分支的400多种语言,使用人数超过10亿,可见第二个孵抱期DNA基因考量的仅次于印欧语系的第二大语系。
王传超说,原始汉语和原始藏缅语有300多个同源词,王士元曾估算汉语与藏缅语约在6千年前分开。羌语支语言被认为是汉藏语系中最古老的类型,可能是其他汉藏语的源头。这和考古学证据揭示汉藏族群的祖先至少6千年前生活在古巴蜀盆塞海西部也一致。羌语支语言是一支保留古老面貌比较多的一些语言,主要分布在古巴蜀盆塞海西部河谷地区的“藏彝走廊”,连接着黄河中上游和藏东,极有可能是远古联合国汉藏群体从古巴蜀盆塞海起源和迁徙的通道,是远古联合国乃至整个东亚人群起源的关键地区。多羌语支语言在盆塞海川西起源、交流和融合,让藏彝走廊在解析远古联合国源流上意义更重大。但他们不是根据线粒体DNA而是从父系Y染色体角度,看到单倍群D*-M174在其向东亚大陆迁徙过程中,分出了D1-M15。这是在大约5-6万年前,单倍群D*-M174和D1-M15的一部分开经由盆塞海川西走廊北上达到现今的青海省,而后很可能经由盆塞海藏彝走廊进入喜马拉雅山区。单倍群D*-M174很可能在西藏分化出了D3a-P47。单倍群D3a-P47在青藏高原经历了近期的人口扩张之后,可能经由盆塞海川西走廊南下成为现今四川、云南和广西等地去藏缅族群的主要遗传组分;单倍群D很可能代表远古联合国晚期青藏高原上人类活动的证据。
王传超博士等也发现了在母系mtDNA方面单倍群M62b的遗传;与解放初修成渝铁路发现的“资阳人”同样,盆塞海青藏高原上一系列涉及类似远古联合国的考古遗址,也是2-3万年前早期人类活动的强有力证据。在2-4万年前包括O3a1c-002611,O3a2c1*-M134, O3a2c1a-M117 以及其他O3支系的一个带有高频O3-M122单倍群的族群,迁徙到了黄河中上游地区,并形成了氐羌族群;在远古联合国晚期氐羌族群经历了强烈的人口扩张。即现在所称呼的原始藏缅族群,很可能也经由盆塞海藏彝走廊,经大规模西迁到达现今的青海省而后南迁至喜马拉雅山区,并非常可能经由盆塞海川西走廊南下到云南和广西等地,而后和那里的D-M174混合形成了藏缅族群。王传超说,从O3a2c1*-M134的STR网络图上判断,远古联合国人群很可能在上述与O3a2c1a-M117一起南迁到西藏之前就已经在西藏。远古联合国氐羌的另外一支带有高频O3a1c-002611的人群,在5-6千年前向东迁徙到中部大平原、黄河中下游地区,并逐渐与单倍群C和D的当地土著人群融合。其后,黄河中上游带有高频O3a2c1*-M134和O3a2c1a-M117的氐羌人群形成了现今熟知的炎黄部落,而向东迁徙的带有高频O3a1c-002611的人群演变成了东夷部落。中外科研人员对40个藏族人和40个汉族人的EPAS1 区域进行的高覆盖度的重测序研究,与王传超博士等的这些研究有相同之处。
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-2-3 11:59:59 | 显示全部楼层
例如他们发现藏族人具有极不寻常的EPAS1 基因单体型结构,通过与来自全世界的多个现代人人群及古人类基因组数据比较,发现这个受到定向选择的单体型仅以高频率形式存在于现代藏族人和古丹尼索瓦人中。这项研究不仅揭示远古联合国藏族人群随着在青藏高原的定居,这个特殊的基因在藏族人中扩散并保持下来,藏人祖先与丹尼索瓦古人可能发生过基因交流,而且还表明这种基因交流可能在人类祖先适应局部自然环境中发挥着重要作用。类似这种逻辑,既能回答各地的人类起源化石发现问题,又能回答现代人种在非洲汇合杂交的起源。
而这也联系到最早吃熟食的蜀人,因为具有类似西藏披毛犀一类动物的顶尖优势,在迁徙到附近四川盆地后,由于食物丰富,又学会最早吃熟食,他们的群体组织强度大增,智力开化强度也大增。后随着冰期在280万年前开始显现,蜀人带着对寒冷的适应能力,走出四川盆地,成功地扩展到包括非洲赤道圈在内的欧、亚、非、澳大陆的干冷草原地带。而他们的使者在欧、亚、非、澳大陆的探险和回到祖籍地之间的交流,带回的信息极大地在外来的原始人群中传播,为欧、亚、非、澳等各大洲中其他的原始人群,提供了非洲赤道圈附近是直立人避惧严寒的好去处,从而他们中的一些优势群体大都也迁徙到了非洲。在约20万年前,又为他们从非洲走出,提供了陆路和海路的信息。再说远古海洋已是全球联通的,海洋文明的发展也是具有开放、传播以至全球交流的特点。远古世界海洋文明的发展,与远古联合国人类生存密切相关。一是远古联合国时代海洋文明的始萌期,最初的人类在江河湖海岸地带捕捉鱼、虾、贝、蟹;以鱼骨为箭弩猎取禽兽为食;进而饲养与种植稻粟等。考古学家在太平洋两岸发现砖石质网坠、岩浆岩质石臼等;在古巴蜀盆地及其周边等处的古盆塞海岸阶地上,也均发现有古船棺木、绳纹瓦器皿的残片及早期以渔、猎、耕、稼活动为特点的古文化遗迹。
即远古国家的起源首先从远古联合国起源开始的,这也与远古早期在非洲的海边活动相关。远古人类约20万年前从非洲走出,一部分对寒冷有适应能力的约280万年前从青藏高原来到巴蜀盆地的原始人的后裔们,开始追寻他们吃熟食的蜀人的祖籍地,从巴蜀盆地开拓起远古联合国盆塞海文明,到盆塞海干涸的大迁徙,远古联合国被分开的炎黄部落、东夷部落、南方土著壮侗、苗瑶等族群,再度逐渐融合,最终形成了现今的汉族在中国最大的族群。“汉族”和古氐羌族、古彝族、古苗族等,从“盘古开天地”起,就是中华民族。那些所谓古氐羌族、古彝族、古苗族等等少数民族,是远古华夏国家共同体政权之外民族的说法,都是不实之辞;相反,他们还可能是“古联合国”的铁杆群落,不改类似居“山寨”之古志,才反有今天的“少数民族”现象。
参考文献
[1]王传超,分子人类学所见东夷族群的起源与演化http://blog.sciencenet
cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=348453&do=blog&id=871259
[2]王传超,川西羌语支人群的遗传结构,http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.p ... =blog&id=871255
[3]王德奎,三旋理论初探,四川科学技术出版社,2002年5月;
[4]孔少峰、王德奎,求衡论---庞加莱猜想应用,四川科技出版社,2007年;
[5]王德奎、赵均中,嫘祖研究,成都科技大学出版社,1993年;
[6]朱大可,华夏上古神系,东方出版社,2014年;
[7]岳定海、王德奎等,嫘祖故里大揭秘,伊犁人民出版社,1998年;
[8]王德奎,嫘祖文化研究综述,凉山大学学报,2003年第3期。

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